A peninsula with the Gulf of Finland to the south and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west, the country has land borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east. Estonia is south of the country across the Gulf of Finland. Finland is a Nordic country situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandiawhich also includes Scandinavia.
Finland's population is 5. In terms of area, it is the eighth largest country in Europe and the beste web for sex etela savo sparsely populated country in the European Union. From the late 12th century, Finland was eela integral part of Swedena legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Beste web for sex etela savo language and its official status. In the spirit of the notion of Adolf Ivar Arwidsson —"we are not Swedes, we do not want to become Russians, let us therefore be Finns", the Finnish national identity started to become established.
Nevertheless, inFinland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. InFinland became the second nation in the world to give the right to vote to all adult citizens and the first in wfb world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Inthe fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning " Reds " supported by the equally new Soviet Beste web for sex etela savofighting the " Whites ", supported by the German Empire.
After a brief attempt to establish a kingdomthe country became a republic. During World War IIthe Soviet Union sought repeatedly to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Salla and Kuusamo, Petsamo and some sed, but retaining independence. Finland joined the United Nations in and established an official policy of neutrality. The Finno-Soviet Treaty of gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics foor the Cold War era. Finland joined the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD inthe NATO Partnership for Peace in the European Union inthe Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in and finally the Eurozone at its inception, in Finland was vor relative latecomer to industrialization, remaining a largely agrarian country until the fot.
After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but also in material such as ships and machinery. This forced Finland to industrialize. It rapidly developed beset advanced economy while building an extensive Nordic-style welfare stateresulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world.
The first known written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three rune-stones. Two were found in the Swedish province of Uppland and have the inscription finlonti U The third was found in Gotlandin the Baltic Sea. It has the inscription finlandi G and dates from the 13th century. In addition to the close relatives of Finnish the Finnic languagesthis name is also used in beste web for sex etela savo Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian.
The word originally referred only to the beste web for sex etela savo of Finland Properand later to the northern coast of Gulf of Finlandwith northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. This region later beste web for sex etela savo known as Finland Proper in distinction from the country name Finland. Finland became a common name for the whole country in a centuries long process that started when the Catholic Church established missionary diocese in Nousiainen in the northern part of the province of Suomi possibly sometime in the 12th century.
What the term actually refers to can vary depending on the sources. In addition, the boundaries to the east and the north were not exact. An establishment of sorts of Finland as a united entity, if only in name, was made when John III of Sweden called his duchy the "Grand Duchy of Finland" aboutas a strategy to counter the claims of the Ebste tsar. The term became part of the title of the King of Sweden but had little practical meaning.
The Finnish land area had the same standing as the area to the west of the Bothnian Sea, and beste web for sex etela savo Finnish part of the realm had the same beste web for sex etela savo in the parliament as the western part. The modern boundaries of Finland actually came into existence only after the end of Sweden-Finland. The actual boundary, which followed the Torne River and the Muonio River to the fells Saana and Halti in the northwest, was a compromise.
The area it delineated was to become what was represented by the concept of Finland — at least after Tsar Alexander I of Russia permitted the parts of Finland located to the east of the Kymi Riverwhich were conquered by Russia in andcalled " Old Finland ", to be administratively included in "New Finland" in The artifacts the first settlers left behind present characteristics that are shared with those found in Estonia, Russia, rtela Norway.
There is no consensus on when Uralic languages and Indo-European languages were first spoken in the area of contemporary Finland. Although distantly related, beste web for sex etela savo Sami are a different people that retained the hunter-gatherer lifestyle longer than the Finns. The Sami cultural identity and the Sami language have survived in Lapland, the northernmost province, but the Sami have been displaced or assimilated elsewhere.
The 12th and 13th centuries were violent time in the northern Baltic sea. Livonian crusade was ongoing and Finnish tribes such as s Tavastians and Karelians were in frequent conflicts with Novgorod and with each other. Also during 12th and 13th centuries several crusades bese the catholic realms of the Baltic sea were made against Finnish tribes.
The so called first crusade to Finland possibly in is most likely unreal event. Also it is possible that Germans have made violent convertion of Brste pagans in 13th century. As a result of the crusades together and with the colonisation of Finnish coastal areas with christian Swedish population during the Middle Ages  Finland gradually became part of kingdom of Sweden. In the 17th century, Swedish became the dominant language of the nobility, administration, and education; Finnish was chiefly a language for the peasantryclergy, and local courts in predominantly Finnish-speaking areas.
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